The development of Public libraries in Mizoram started with the mechanism and contribution of two christian missionaries, Rev. James Herbert Lorrain and Dr. Frederick W. Savidge. They travelled from London and arrived in Mizoram in 1894 under the Arthington Aborigine Mission. They started education, open schools and developed mizo alphabets. Due to their tremendous contributions, the Assam Government handed over school administration and inspection to the Christian missionaries for some time.

In 1958, the first college under the name of Aijal college (now, known as Pachhunga University college) was established under their initiatives and Mr. Lalmakthanga was appointed as Librarian-cum-college clerk in 1961 which was regarded as the first professional appointment in the field of Library in Mizoram. Afterwards, the first public library, known as Aijal District Library, was established in 1969 at Aizawl. The Government of Mizoram, in 1974, established three Public Libraries, State Library of Mizoram which is situated in the heart of Aizawl, District Library at Lunglei and District Library at Saiha. It was followed by the establishment of two Sub-Divisional Libraries at Kolasib and Champhai.

After Mizoram attained Union Territory in 1972, Library service was looked after under the Director of Education, Govt. of Mizoram until 1988. However, in 1989, the Director of Education was trifurcated into three departments namely Higher and Technical Education, School Education and Art & Culture Department. Since then, public library service is under the control of Department of Art & Culture.